Canadian Medical Association

Last updated: February 6, 2023

Did you know Canadian Medical Association (CMA) members have access to a team of skilled medical librarians who can support you by searching on your behalf, teaching you effective search strategies or training you to use our resources? Get the latest evidence and save time, so you can focus on what’s important to you.

CMA Joule’s Ask a Librarian team is committed to curating free evidence-based resources related to the COVID-19 pandemic. We continue to update the Ask a Librarian: COVID-19 and the Ask a Librarian: COVID-19 vaccines posts with current clinical summaries, article collections, guidance and more.

Here we focus on information sources specific to post‒COVID-19 condition — also known as long COVID, long-haul COVID, post-acute COVID-19 (PACS), post-acute sequelae of COVID-19 (PASC), long-term effects of COVID and chronic COVID. 

On Oct. 6, 2021 the World Health Organization (WHO) published a clinical case definition of long-COVID based on Delphi methodology. It was developed in consultation with hundreds of patients, researchers, external experts and WHO staff. The standardized definition includes 12 domains to help clinicians in all settings identify patients more easily and to advance recognition and research:

Post COVID-19 condition occurs in individuals with a history of probable or confirmed SARS CoV-2 infection, usually 3 months from the onset of COVID-19 with symptoms and that last for at least 2 months and cannot be explained by an alternative diagnosis. Common symptoms include fatigue, shortness of breath, cognitive dysfunction but also others and generally have an impact on everyday functioning. Symptoms may be new onset following initial recovery from an acute COVID-19 episode or persist from the initial illness. Symptoms may also fluctuate or relapse over time.

According to the Post-COVID-19 Condition in Canada: What we know, what we don’t know, and a framework for action (Pre-Report), as of summer of 2022, more than 1.4 million Canadians (14.8 per cent of adults who have contracted COVID-19) reported that they experienced symptoms three months or more after their initial infection. A recent McMaster University-led study reported that 25 per cent of long COVID patients still had at least one of the three most common symptoms (coughing, fatigue and breathlessness) after one year.

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Clinical summaries


(Included with membership. Access DynaMed now) COVID-19 (Novel Coronavirus): see Long COVID in Complications section.

BMJ Best Practice

Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Under “Complications” see “post COVID-19 syndrome (long COVID)”. 


COVID-19: Evaluation and management of adults with persistent symptoms following acute illness (Long COVID)

Evidence reviews

American Family Physician

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Daily Research Briefs Search "long COVID" and/or other synonyms.

Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technology in Health (CADTH)

Evidence on Post-COVID-19 Condition: current evidence and resources on post-COVID-19 condition

COVID-19 Evidence Synthesis Network

Evidence Synthesis Briefing Note: The Assessment and Treatment of Post-COVID-19 Condition. April 11, 2022.

Evidence Synthesis Briefing Note: Understanding The Post-COVID Condition April 1, 2022.

McMaster University

COVID-END: Care Models for Long COVID - A Rapid Systematic Review. May 27, 2021.

COVID-19 Evidence Alerts: Weekly update of high-quality clinical studies with free email notifications. Search “long COVID” and/or other synonyms.

Articles and article collections

CMAJ articles

Assessing common and potentially modifiable symptoms of post-COVID-19 condition (long COVID) in adults. Kieran L. Quinn, Fahad Razak, Angela M. Cheung. CMAJ Jan 2023, 195 (2) E76-E77; DOI: 10.1503/cmaj.220823

Diagnosing post-COVID-19 condition (long COVID) in adults. Kieran L. Quinn, Fahad Razak, Angela M. Cheung. CMAJ Jan 2023, 195 (2) E78-E79; DOI: 10.1503/cmaj.220818

Treating common and potentially modifiable symptoms of post-COVID-19 condition (long COVID) in adults. Kieran L. Quinn, Angela M. Cheung, Fahad Razak. CMAJ Jan 2023, 195 (2) E80-E81; DOI: 10.1503/cmaj.220824

The evolving picture of long COVID. Diana Duong. CMAJ Jun 2022, 194 (24) E850-E851; DOI: 10.1503/cmaj.1096004

Unpacking “long COVID”. Terry Murray. CMAJ March 01, 2021, 193 (9) E318-E319; DOI:

Even mild COVID-19 may have long-term brain impacts. Diana Duong. CMAJ August 30, 2021, 193 (34) E1360-E1361; DOI:

Guidelines and other information


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention – Post-COVID Conditions: Information for Healthcare Providers 

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) – COVID-19 rapid guideline: managing the long-term effects of COVID-19

World Health Organization – Post COVID-19 condition 


CMA Joule – CPG Infobase: Clinical Practice Guidelines on Long COVID 

Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health (CADTH) - LONG COVID Recommendations

Center for Effective Practice – COVID-19: Clinical Guidance for Primary Care Providers - Long-term symptoms / Post-acute sequelae of COVID-19 (PASC)

Government of Canada – COVID-19 for health professionals: Post COVID-19 condition 

Government of Canada – Office of the Chief Science Advisor - Post-COVID-19 Condition in Canada: What we know, what we don’t know, and a framework for action (Pre-Report). December 14, 2022.

Viral Neuro Exploration, COVID Long Haulers Support Group Canada, and Neurological Health Charities Canada – Report on Pan-Canadian Long Covid Impact Survey. June 8, 2021.

Statistics Canada - The Daily — Long-term symptoms in Canadian adults who tested positive for COVID-19 or suspected an infection, January 2020 to August 2022. October 17, 2022. 


British Columbia

Provincial Health Services Authority – Post-COVID-19 Recovery Care 


Alberta Health Services – Recovery & Rehabilitation After COVID-19: Resources for Health Professionals December 21, 2022.


Saskatchewan Health Authority – Long-COVID information repository to support Saskatchewan decision-makers during the COVID pandemic 


Shared Health Manitoba - Long COVID / Post COVID-19 Condition 


Ontario College of Family physicians (OCFP) - Post-COVID Condition (Long COVID) 

Ontario COVID-19 Science Advisory Table - Understanding the Post COVID-19 Condition (Long COVID) in Adults and the Expected Burden for Ontario. September 7, 2022.

Ontario Health - Post–COVID-19 Condition: Guidance for Primary Care. December, 2022.


CIUSSS de l'Estrie - CHUS - Long COVID 

Institut national d'excellence en santé et en services sociaux. Affections post-COVID-19 (COVID LONGUE)

New Brunswick 

Government of New Brunswick - Post COVID-19 Condition 

Nova Scotia

Nova Scotia Health. My COVID Recovery – your source of health information after having COVID-19 

Prince Edward Island 

Government of Prince Edward Island - Post-COVID Condition 


Government of Yukon - Find support for post COVID-19 condition

Patient information

Breathe / Canadian Lung Association - Long COVID | Canadian Lung Association

CanCov – Patient resources to help people cope with the disease 

Government of Canada – Post COVID-19 condition

Johns Hopkins Medicine – Long COVID: Long-Term Effects of COVID-19 

Long Covid Resources Canada - Includes Long COVID information, patient stories and provincial supports 

Mayo Clinic – COVID-19: Long-term effects 

Patient Led Research Collaborative - COVID-19 Patient Experience Survey 

University Health Network. Health Science Information Consortium of Toronto. COVID: COVID-19 Resources for Patients and Families: Long COVID-19: Tips for Recovery 

Pre-populated literature searches

Long COVID search in PubMed

Long COVID search: LitCovid is a curated literature hub for tracking current scientific information about the 2019 novel Coronavirus. Updated daily.

Long COVID search: COVID-19 Portfolio - NIH’s comprehensive, expert-curated source for publications and preprints related to COVID-19 and the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2.

#LongCovid: Twitter search

Need more information or have a more focused clinical question on Post‒COVID-19 Condition or any other clinical topic of interest? Contact the Ask a Librarian team to request a literature search.

This material is for informational purposes only. It is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice and should not be relied on as health or personal advice. The opinions stated by the authors are made in a personal capacity and do not necessarily reflect those of the Canadian Medical Association and its subsidiaries including CMA Joule.

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